Rythmo band[ edit ] An alternative method to dubbing, called "rythmo band" or " lip-sync band" , has historically been used in Canada and France. It provides a more precise guide for the actors, directors , and technicians, and can be used to complement the traditional ADR method. The rythmo band is projected in the studio and scrolls in perfect synchronization with the picture. With ADR, actors can average 10—12 lines per hour, while rythmo band can facilitate the reading of lines per hour.
This has prevented the technique from being more widely adopted, but software emulations of rythmo band technology overcome the disadvantages of the traditional rythmo band process and significantly reduce the time needed to prepare a dubbing session. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
January See also: Dub localization Dubbing is often used to localize a foreign movie. The new voice track is usually spoken by a voice artist , or voice actor. In many countries, actors who regularly perform this duty remain little-known, with the exception of particular circles such as anime fandom or when their voices have become synonymous with roles or actors whose voices they usually dub.
In the United States, many of these voice artists may employ pseudonyms or go uncredited due to Screen Actors Guild regulations or the desire to dissociate themselves from the role. Especially in comedies and animated movies, famous local actors may be hired to perform the dubbing, as their names are intended to attract a local audience; the entire cast may be dubbed by a local cast of similar familiarity.
Dubbing only for children: Otherwise solely subtitles Mixed areas: Countries using occasionally full-cast dubbing otherwise solely subtitles Voice-over: Countries using usually one or just a couple of voice actors whereas the original soundtrack persists.
Movies and TV shows intended for children are generally dubbed with a full-cast dubbing as well General dubbing: Countries using exclusively a full-cast dubbing, both for films and for TV series Belgium: Flemish speaking regions occasionally produce own dialect dubbing versions otherwise solely subtitles.
The French speaking region of Wallonia uses a full-cast dubbing in French language including films and TV series as well. For movies in cinemas with clear target audiences both below and above 10—11 years of age , both a dubbed and a subtitled version are usually available. Netherlands[ edit ] In the Netherlands, for the most part, Dutch versions are only made for children's and family films.
Animated movies are shown in theaters with Dutch dubbing, but usually those cinemas with more screening rooms also provide the original subtitled version, such as movies like Finding Nemo , Shrek the Third and WALL-E.
Belgium[ edit ] In the Dutch speaking part of Belgium Flanders , movies and TV series are shown in their original language with subtitles , with the exception of most movies made for a young audience.
In the latter case, sometimes separate versions are recorded in the Netherlands and in Flanders for instance, several Walt Disney films and Harry Potter films. These dubbed versions only differ from each other in their use of different voice actors and different pronunciation, while the text is almost the same.
In the French speaking part of Belgium, the range of French-dubbed versions is approximately as wide as the German range, where nearly all movies and TV series are dubbed. United Kingdom[ edit ] In the United Kingdom , the vast majority of foreign language films are subtitled, although mostly animated films and TV programmes are dubbed in English.
These usually originate from North America , as opposed to being dubbed locally. When airing films on television, channels in the UK often choose subtitling over dubbing, even if a dubbing in English exists. It is also a fairly common practice for animation aimed at preschool children to be re-dubbed with British voice actors replacing the original voices, although this is not done with shows aimed at older audiences.
Ireland[ edit ] Ireland usually receives the same film versions as the UK. Animated movies are shown in theaters with Romanian dubbing. However, those cinemas with more screening rooms usually also provide the original subtitled version. Such was the case for movies like Babe , Atlantis: Other foreign TV shows and movies are shown in the original language with Romanian subtitles. Subtitles are usually preferred in the Romanian market. According to "Special Eurobarometer " graph QA However, according to the same Eurobarometer, virtually no Romanian found this method—watching movies in their original version—to be the most efficient way to learn foreign languages, compared to 53 percent who preferred language lessons at school.
The dubbing of cartoon series in former Yugoslavia during the s had a twist of its own: These phrases became immensely popular and are still being used for tongue-in-cheek comments in specific situations. Some of the Serbian dubs are also broadcast in Croatia and the Republic of Macedonia. Croatia[ edit ] In Croatia , foreign films and TV series are always subtitled, while most children's programs and animated movies are dubbed into Croatian.
The practice of dubbing began in the s in some animated shows and continued in 90's, 00's and forward in other shows and films, the latter ones being released in home media.
Recently, more efforts have been made to introduce dubbing, but public reception has been poor in some exceptions. Regardless of language, Croatian audiences prefer subtitling to dubbing, however it is still popular in animated films. Some previously popular shows such as Sailor Moon lost their appeal completely after the practice of dubbing began, and the dubbing was eventually removed from the programs, even though most animated shows shown on television and some on home media have been well received by people watching them with own dub.
This situation is similar with theater movies, with only those intended for children being dubbed such as Finding Nemo and Shark Tale , but nowadays are shown in dubbed versions.
Some of Croatian dubbing is also broadcast in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Slovenia[ edit ] In Slovenia , all foreign films and television programs are subtitled with the exception of children's movies and TV shows both animated or live-action.
While dubbed versions are always shown in cinemas and later on TV channels, cinemas will sometimes play subtitled versions of children's movies as well. Portugal[ edit ] In Portugal , dubbing was banned under a law as a way of protecting the domestic film industry and reduce the access to culture as most of the population was illiterate.
This lack of interest was justified, since there were already quality dubbed copies of shows and movies in Portuguese made by Brazilians. The Lion King was the first feature film to be dubbed in European Portuguese rather than strictly Brazilian Portuguese. Currently, all movies for children are dubbed in European Portuguese. Subtitles are preferred in Portugal,  used in every foreign-language documentary , TV series and film.
The exception to this preference is when children are the target audience. While on TV, children's shows and movies are always dubbed, in cinemas, films with a clear juvenile target can be found in two versions, one dubbed identified by the letters V. This duality applies only to juvenile films.
Others use subtitles only. While the quality of these dubs is recognized some have already received international recognition and prizes , original versions with subtitles are usually preferred by the adults Bee Movie , for example. Dubbing cartoons aimed at adults such as The Simpsons or South Park is less common.
Presently, live action series and movies are always shown in their original language format with Portuguese subtitles. Greece[ edit ] In Greece , most cartoon films have dubs. Usually when a movie has a Greek dub the dub is shown in cinemas but subtitled versions are shown as well.
Foreign TV shows for adults are shown in their original versions with subtitles, most cartoons, for example, The Flintstones and The Jetsons were always dubbed, while Family Guy and American Dad! However, when Skai TV was re-launched in April , the network opted for dubbing almost all foreign shows in Greek, unlike other Greek channels which had always broadcast most of the programs in their original language with subtitles.
Nordic countries[ edit ] In the Nordic countries , dubbing is used only in animated features and other films for younger audiences. Some cinemas in the major cities may also screen the original version, usually as the last showing of the day, or in a smaller auditorium in a multiplex. In television programs with off-screen narration, the original audio is dubbed in their native language, while on-screen voices are usually subtitled. The Nordic countries are often treated as a common market issuing DVD and Blu-ray releases with original audio and user choosable subtitle options in Danish , Finnish , Norwegian and Swedish.
The covers often have text in all four languages as well, but are sometimes unique for each country. German, Greek, Hungarian or Italian. Children's films typically have Nordic audio tracks in all four languages, as well as original audio in most cases.
Most DVD and Blu-ray releases usually only have the original audio, except for children's films, which have both Finnish and Swedish language tracks, in addition to the original audio and subtitles in both languages. In Iceland , the dubbed version of film and TV is usually Danish with some translated into Icelandic , LazyTown , an Icelandic TV show originally broadcast in English, was dubbed into Icelandic, amongst thirty-two other languages, and it remains the TV show to have been dubbed into the most languages.
In movie theaters, films for adult audiences have both Finnish and Swedish subtitles, the Finnish printed in basic font and the Swedish printed below the Finnish in a cursive font. In the early ages of television, foreign TV shows and movies were voiced by narrator in Finland. Later, subtitles became a practice on Finnish television.
Dubbing of films other than children's films is unpopular in Finland, as in many other countries. A good example is The Simpsons Movie. While the original version was well-received, the Finnish-dubbed version received poor reviews, with some critics even calling it a disaster.
Estonia[ edit ] In Estonia in cinemas, only children's animated films are dubbed and live-action films are shown in the original language with subtitles at cinemas. Subtitles are usually presented in both Estonian and Russian languages.
Cartoons and animated series voiced by dubbing or voiceover and live-action films and television series only with Estonian subtitles. Animated films are commonly shown in both the original language and dubbed into Estonian or Russian in many cinemas. Most Estonian-language television channels use subtitles for foreign-language films and TV channels.
However, Russian language channels tend to use dubbing more often, especially for Russian channels broadcast from Russia as opposed to Russian channels broadcast from Estonia. General films and programming[ edit ] In the Albanian , Turkish , Polish , German , French , Italian , Spanish , Czech , Slovak , Hungarian , Russian and Ukrainian language-speaking markets of Europe , almost all foreign films and television shows are dubbed the exception being the majority of theatrical releases of adult-audience movies in the Czech Republic , Slovakia , Poland and Turkey and high-profile videos in Russia.
There are few opportunities to watch foreign movies in their original versions. In Spain , Italy , Germany and Austria , even in the largest cities, there are few cinemas that screen original versions with subtitles , or without any translation. However, digital pay-TV programming is often available in the original language, including the latest movies.
Prior to the rise of DVDs, which in these countries are mostly issued with multi-language audio tracks, original-language films those in languages other than the country's official language were rare, whether in theaters, on TV, or on home video, and subtitled versions were considered a product for small niche markets such as intellectual or art films. Latvia and Lithuania[ edit ] In Latvia and Lithuania , only children's movies get dubbed in the cinema, while many movies use voice-over.
In recent years however, many cartoons have been dubbed into Latvian and Lithuanian for TV. But some other kids shows, like SpongeBob SquarePants , use the voice-over. Albania[ edit ] The first movie dubbed in Albanian language was The Great Warrior Skanderbeg in and since then, there have been thousands of popular titles dubbed in Albanian by different dubbing studios.
All animated movies and children's programs are dubbed into Albanian language, many live-action movies as well.