Great sex society magazine january 2006. Результатов: 1,191,152.



Great sex society magazine january 2006

Great sex society magazine january 2006

Advanced Search Abstract We compiled information from the literature on the taxonomic distributions in extant teleost fishes of alternative sex-determination systems: Then, using recently published molecular phylogenies based on whole-genomic or partial mitochondrial DNA sequences, we inferred the histories and evolutionary transitions between these reproductive modes by employing maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood methods of phylogenetic character mapping.

Across a broad teleost phylogeny involving 25 taxonomic orders, a highly patchy distribution of different sex-determination mechanisms was uncovered, implying numerous transitions between alternative modes, but this heterogeneity also precluded definitive statements about ancestral states for most clades.

Closer inspection of family-level and genus-level phylogenies within each of four orders further bolstered the conclusion that shifts in sex-determining modes are evolutionarily frequent and involve a variety of distinct ancestral-descendant pathways.

For possible reasons discussed herein, the evolutionary lability of sex-determining modes in fishes contrasts strikingly with the evolutionary conservatism of sex determination within both mammals and birds. Why, for example, have particular sex-determining mechanisms been retained over vast stretches of evolutionary time in some vertebrate lineages but not in others? Extreme conservatism is illustrated by birds and mammals, all extant species of which share, respectively, a monophyletic ZW system of female heterogamety Fridolfsson et al.

In teleost fishes, by contrast, a wide variety of sex-determining modes including the involvement of sex chromosomes, autosomal genes, and environmental triggers implies that at least several evolutionary transitions among reproductive systems have occurred, albeit at uncertain rates and in undetermined directions Orzack et al.

Recent advances in DNA sequencing technology and phylogenetic analysis afford new opportunities to examine the evolutionary histories of sex-determining mechanisms. Although results of this exercise in phylogenetic character mapping remained provisional due to uncertainties in clade resolution and other difficulties to be discussed , they did help to address several questions regarding evolutionary trends of sex determination in teleost fishes, including the following.

What are the directions of evolutionary transitions between hermaphroditism and gonochorism separate sexes , between male heterogamety and female heterogamety, and other mechanisms of sex determination? Has phylogenetic inertia constrained evolutionary shifts between alternative modes of sex determination?

A total of species are included in this summary. As outgroups, we also added information on Acipenseriformes sturgeons and paddlefish, Actinopterygii , and Rajiformes Chondrichthyes, cartilaginous fishes. We used a current classification Nelson, to reconcile taxonomic discrepancies.

A complete list of papers more than in total that we used in compiling information on sex determination in teleosts is available as Supplementary Material to this article. We explored two evolutionary levels. First, to examine broad histories of sex determination using the comparative approach e. This composite tree represented an amalgamation of published phylogenies based on whole-genome or partial-genome mtDNA sequences or in one case on morphological data for representative species Table 1.

When multiple published phylogenies were available, we chose the tree topology that was based on the largest number of informative characters and that maximized phylogenetic resolution. We then mapped sex-determination modes onto the terminal nodes in each phylogeny and, for clarity as well as to minimize bias, pruned clades with unknown mechanisms of sex determination. Published phylogenies, and their data matrices, used to construct teleost composite tree Clade.

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Great sex society magazine january 2006

Advanced Search Abstract We compiled information from the literature on the taxonomic distributions in extant teleost fishes of alternative sex-determination systems: Then, using recently published molecular phylogenies based on whole-genomic or partial mitochondrial DNA sequences, we inferred the histories and evolutionary transitions between these reproductive modes by employing maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood methods of phylogenetic character mapping.

Across a broad teleost phylogeny involving 25 taxonomic orders, a highly patchy distribution of different sex-determination mechanisms was uncovered, implying numerous transitions between alternative modes, but this heterogeneity also precluded definitive statements about ancestral states for most clades. Closer inspection of family-level and genus-level phylogenies within each of four orders further bolstered the conclusion that shifts in sex-determining modes are evolutionarily frequent and involve a variety of distinct ancestral-descendant pathways.

For possible reasons discussed herein, the evolutionary lability of sex-determining modes in fishes contrasts strikingly with the evolutionary conservatism of sex determination within both mammals and birds. Why, for example, have particular sex-determining mechanisms been retained over vast stretches of evolutionary time in some vertebrate lineages but not in others?

Extreme conservatism is illustrated by birds and mammals, all extant species of which share, respectively, a monophyletic ZW system of female heterogamety Fridolfsson et al. In teleost fishes, by contrast, a wide variety of sex-determining modes including the involvement of sex chromosomes, autosomal genes, and environmental triggers implies that at least several evolutionary transitions among reproductive systems have occurred, albeit at uncertain rates and in undetermined directions Orzack et al.

Recent advances in DNA sequencing technology and phylogenetic analysis afford new opportunities to examine the evolutionary histories of sex-determining mechanisms.

Although results of this exercise in phylogenetic character mapping remained provisional due to uncertainties in clade resolution and other difficulties to be discussed , they did help to address several questions regarding evolutionary trends of sex determination in teleost fishes, including the following. What are the directions of evolutionary transitions between hermaphroditism and gonochorism separate sexes , between male heterogamety and female heterogamety, and other mechanisms of sex determination?

Has phylogenetic inertia constrained evolutionary shifts between alternative modes of sex determination? A total of species are included in this summary. As outgroups, we also added information on Acipenseriformes sturgeons and paddlefish, Actinopterygii , and Rajiformes Chondrichthyes, cartilaginous fishes.

We used a current classification Nelson, to reconcile taxonomic discrepancies. A complete list of papers more than in total that we used in compiling information on sex determination in teleosts is available as Supplementary Material to this article. We explored two evolutionary levels. First, to examine broad histories of sex determination using the comparative approach e.

This composite tree represented an amalgamation of published phylogenies based on whole-genome or partial-genome mtDNA sequences or in one case on morphological data for representative species Table 1. When multiple published phylogenies were available, we chose the tree topology that was based on the largest number of informative characters and that maximized phylogenetic resolution.

We then mapped sex-determination modes onto the terminal nodes in each phylogeny and, for clarity as well as to minimize bias, pruned clades with unknown mechanisms of sex determination. Published phylogenies, and their data matrices, used to construct teleost composite tree Clade.

Great sex society magazine january 2006

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  2. For possible reasons discussed herein, the evolutionary lability of sex-determining modes in fishes contrasts strikingly with the evolutionary conservatism of sex determination within both mammals and birds. Drawing on data from a sample of fifty-six self-defined paedophiles living in the community, she explores themes including self-identity, the place of fantasy and the forms of support available to paedophiles.

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