Hepatitis A, B, or C Rather than resist HIV prevention, 22 club managers appeared to promote and engage actively in it. Our telephone survey found that most clubs have assigned a specific employee to manage prevention activities and that on-site testing programs were more likely to have been initiated by the clubs themselves than by any other single group of stakeholders.
Although condom and information distribution remain the primary prevention activities, many clubs reported additional prevention efforts, including outreach programs, counseling services, and special events that focused on HIV prevention and testing.
In fact, when compared to a similar study conducted in —, 4 the percentage of clubs offering HIV testing programs has almost doubled. The data presented described the extent to which prevention programs were offered in clubs across the country. Further research is needed to determine the efficacy of prevention activities such as where condoms are distributed in the club , to develop best-practices standards for service programs such as on-site HIV testing , and to identify the facilitators that lead clubs to engage in prevention and the barriers that stifle such engagement.
Providing answers to these questions can help direct future prevention efforts by focusing resources on effective programs and assisting public health officials and service providers in exploiting facilitators and minimizing barriers for clubs to engage in prevention. Although local jurisdictions have instituted many different policies to establish particular approaches to prevention in clubs, little or no research has been conducted to determine whether any of them are effective or more appropriate than other approaches.
The following limitations should be kept in mind when interpreting the results of this study. All data were provided by one key informant at each site, without any observational or secondary source verification. It is possible that responses might have been different had they been provided by a different key informant for that site.
It also is possible that we received refusals from clubs that were not providing prevention efforts. Finally, the information on HIV testing programs is limited, as the program providers were not interviewed. In summary, nearly all the businesses engaged in HIV education and prevention. We found that free condom distribution was a universal characteristic of prevention in clubs, followed closely by such educational efforts as posters and pamphlets.
Most clubs provided on-site HIV testing. The absence of studies evaluating these prevention efforts remains a concern and an obstacle to efficient use of resources. Nevertheless, these data suggest that HIV prevention in clubs is perceived by most managers as a necessary part of doing business.
The willingness of these clubs to promote HIV prevention suggests that the business aspect of venues that serve at-risk populations is not necessarily an impediment to intervening in these venues. Supplementary Material Click here to view. Footnotes This is a PDF file of an unedited manuscript that has been accepted for publication. As a service to our customers we are providing this early version of the manuscript. The manuscript will undergo copyediting, typesetting, and review of the resulting proof before it is published in its final citable form.
Please note that during the production process errors may be discovered which could affect the content, and all legal disclaimers that apply to the journal pertain. Woods WJ, Binson D. Public health policy and gay bathhouses. Helquist M, Osmon R. Sex and the baths: Sexual activities in bathhouses in Los Angeles County: Facilities and HIV prevention in bathhouse and sex club environments.
Accessed August 12, Implementing bathhouse-based voluntary counseling and testing has no adverse effect on bathhouse patronage among men who have sex with men. Probability sample estimates of bathhouse sexual risk behavior.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. HIV risk factors reported by two samples of male bathhouse attendees in Los Angeles, California, — HIV risk associated with gay bathhouses and sex clubs: Am J Public Health. HIV risk at a gay bathhouse.
PMC [available March 1, ] Differential HIV risk in bathhouses and public cruising areas. Building stakeholder partnerships for an on-site HIV testing programme. Designing an HIV counseling and testing program for bathhouses: Overcoming barriers to HIV testing: Choosing HIV counseling and testing strategies for outreach settings: Bathhouse-based voluntary counseling and testing is feasible and shows preliminary evidence of effectiveness. Rapid vs standard HIV testing in a bathhouse setting: And the Band Played On: Public policy regulating private and public space in gay bathhouses.