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Meeting of victims of sexual violence in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. It includes rape, defined as the physically forced or otherwise coerced penetration of the vulva or anus with a penis, other body part or object.

If perpetrated during childhood, sexual violence can lead to increased smoking, [33] drug and alcohol misuse, and risky sexual behaviors in later life. It is also associated with perpetration of violence and being a victim of violence. Many of the risk factors for sexual violence are the same as for domestic violence. Risk factors specific to sexual violence perpetration include beliefs in family honor and sexual purity, ideologies of male sexual entitlement and weak legal sanctions for sexual violence.

Few interventions to prevent sexual violence have been demonstrated to be effective. School-based programmes to prevent child sexual abuse by teaching children to recognize and avoid potentially sexually abusive situations are run in many parts of the world and appear promising, but require further research. To achieve lasting change, it is important to enact legislation and develop policies that protect women; address discrimination against women and promote gender equality; and help to move the culture away from violence.

Elder abuse Elder maltreatment is a single or repeated act, or lack of appropriate action, occurring within any relationship where there is an expectation of trust which causes harm or distress to an older person.

This type of violence constitutes a violation of human rights and includes physical , sexual , psychological , emotional; financial and material abuse; abandonment; neglect ; and serious loss of dignity and respect.

Data on the extent of the problem in institutions such as hospitals, nursing homes and other long-term care facilities are scarce. Elder maltreatment can lead to serious physical injuries and long-term psychological consequences. Elder maltreatment is predicted to increase as many countries are experiencing rapidly ageing populations. Many strategies have been implemented to prevent elder maltreatment and to take action against it and mitigate its consequences including public and professional awareness campaigns, screening of potential victims and abusers , caregiver support interventions e.

Their effectiveness has, however, not so far been well-established. These studies — investigated what the authors called "targeted violence," described the "path to violence" of those who planned or carried out attacks and laid out suggestions for law enforcement and educators. A major point from these research studies is that targeted violence does not just "come out of the blue". Its causes are complex and occur at different levels. To represent this complexity, the ecological, or social ecological model is often used.

The following four-level version of the ecological model is often used in the study of violence: The first level identifies biological and personal factors that influence how individuals behave and increase their likelihood of becoming a victim or perpetrator of violence: For intimate partner violence, a consistent marker at this level of the model is marital conflict or discord in the relationship.

In elder abuse , important factors are stress due to the nature of the past relationship between the abused person and the care giver. The third level explores the community context—i. Risk at this level may be affected by factors such as the existence of a local drug trade, the absence of social networks, and concentrated poverty.

All these factors have been shown to be important in several types of violence. Finally, the fourth level looks at the broad societal factors that help to create a climate in which violence is encouraged or inhibited: Child-rearing[ edit ] Cross-cultural studies have shown that greater prevalence of corporal punishment of children tends to predict higher levels of violence in societies.

For instance, a analysis of pre-industrial societies found that corporal punishment was more prevalent in societies which also had higher rates of homicide, assault, and war. Straus believes that disciplinary spanking forms "the most prevalent and important form of violence in American families", whose effects contribute to several major societal problems, including later domestic violence and crime.

Neurobiologist Jan Volavka emphasizes that, for those purposes, "violent behavior is defined as intentional physically aggressive behavior against another person. Among prehistoric humans, there is archaeological evidence for both contentions of violence and peacefulness as primary characteristics. For example, in a state where execution is a legalized punishment we do not typically perceive the executioner as "violent", though we may talk, in a more metaphorical way, of the state acting violently.

Likewise, understandings of violence are linked to a perceived aggressor-victim relationship: Apes and the Origins of Human Violence" write that violence is inherent in humans, though not inevitable. Ury, editor of a book called "Must We Fight?

The conclusion is that "we also have lots of natural mechanisms for cooperation, to keep conflict in check, to channel aggression, and to overcome conflict. These are just as natural to us as the aggressive tendencies. They suggest that research typically focuses on lethal violence, often looks at homicide rates of death due to warfare , but ignore the less obvious forms of violence. Kaplan introduces the notion of liberating violence. According to Kaplan, we will observe more violent civil wars in the future, which will be fought due to economic inequalities around the world.

It has been discussed at length by researchers in sociology , [64] [65] medical anthropology , [66] [67] psychology , [68] philosophy , [69] and bioarchaeology. He writes that "Buss and Shackelford a proposed seven adaptive problems our ancestors recurrently faced that might have been solved by aggression: He argues that such conflicts occur when there is a status dispute between men of relatively similar status.

If there is a great initial status difference, then the lower status individual usually offers no challenge and if challenged the higher status individual usually ignores the lower status individual. At the same an environment of great inequalities between people may cause those at the bottom to use more violence in attempts to gain status. Media violence research Research into the media and violence examines whether links between consuming media violence and subsequent aggressive and violent behaviour exists.

Although some scholars had claimed media violence may increase aggression, [76] this view is coming increasingly in doubt both in the scholarly community [77] and was rejected by the US Supreme Court in the Brown v EMA case, as well as in a review of video game violence by the Australian Government which concluded evidence for harmful effects were inconclusive at best and the rhetoric of some scholars was not matched by good data.

Prevention[ edit ] The threat and enforcement of physical punishment has been a tried and tested method of preventing some violence since civilisation began. Interpersonal violence[ edit ] A review of scientific literature by the World Health Organization on the effectiveness of strategies to prevent interpersonal violence identified the seven strategies below as being supported by either strong or emerging evidence for effectiveness.

Child—caregiver relationships[ edit ] Among the most effective such programmes to prevent child maltreatment and reduce childhood aggression are the Nurse Family Partnership home-visiting programme [80] and the Triple P Parenting Program.

Life skills refer to social, emotional, and behavioural competencies which help children and adolescents effectively deal with the challenges of everyday life. Gender equality[ edit ] Evaluation studies are beginning to support community interventions that aim to prevent violence against women by promoting gender equality.

For instance, evidence suggests that programmes that combine microfinance with gender equity training can reduce intimate partner violence. Cultural norms[ edit ] Rules or expectations of behaviour — norms — within a cultural or social group can encourage violence. Interventions that challenge cultural and social norms supportive of violence can prevent acts of violence and have been widely used, but the evidence base for their effectiveness is currently weak.

The effectiveness of interventions addressing dating violence and sexual abuse among teenagers and young adults by challenging social and cultural norms related to gender is supported by some evidence. Examples for which evidence of effectiveness is emerging includes: Collective violence[ edit ] Not surprisingly, scientific evidence about the effectiveness of interventions to prevent collective violence is lacking.

When planning responses to violent conflicts, recommended approaches include assessing at an early stage who is most vulnerable and what their needs are, co-ordination of activities between various players and working towards global, national and local capabilities so as to deliver effective health services during the various stages of an emergency.

Law enforcement is the main means of regulating nonmilitary violence in society. Governments regulate the use of violence through legal systems governing individuals and political authorities, including the police and military.

Civil societies authorize some amount of violence, exercised through the police power , to maintain the status quo and enforce laws. However, German political theorist Hannah Arendt noted: Its justification loses in plausibility the farther its intended end recedes into the future. No one questions the use of violence in self-defence, because the danger is not only clear but also present, and the end justifying the means is immediate".

Most political theorists regarded violence as an extreme manifestation of power whereas Arendt regarded the two concepts as opposites. Damage to property is classified as violent crime in some jurisdictions but not in all. The notions of individual blame, responsibility, guilt, and culpability are central to criminal justice's approach to violence and one of the criminal justice system's main tasks is to "do justice", i. To prevent and respond to violence, the criminal justice approach relies primarily on deterrence, incarceration and the punishment and rehabilitation of perpetrators.

One of the main reasons offenders are arrested, prosecuted, and convicted is to prevent further crimes — through deterrence threatening potential offenders with criminal sanctions if they commit crimes , incapacitation physically preventing offenders from committing further crimes by locking them up and through rehabilitation using time spent under state supervision to develop skills or change one's psychological make-up to reduce the likelihood of future offences.

For instance, much of community and problem-oriented policing aims to reduce crime and violence by altering the conditions that foster it — and not to increase the number of arrests. Indeed, some police leaders have gone so far as to say the police should primarily be a crime prevention agency. In the US, the criminal justice system has, for instance, funded school- and community-based initiatives to reduce children's access to guns and teach conflict resolution.

In , the US Department of Justice assumed primary responsibility for delinquency prevention programmes and created the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, which has supported the "Blueprints for violence prevention" programme at the University of Colorado Boulder. The public health approach is interdisciplinary, drawing upon knowledge from many disciplines including medicine, epidemiology, sociology, psychology, criminology, education and economics.

Because all forms of violence are multi-faceted problems, the public health approach emphasizes a multi-sectoral response. It has been proved time and again that cooperative efforts from such diverse sectors as health, education, social welfare, and criminal justice are often necessary to solve what are usually assumed to be purely "criminal" or "medical" problems.

From a public health perspective, prevention strategies can be classified into three types: Primary prevention — approaches that aim to prevent violence before it occurs. Secondary prevention — approaches that focus on the more immediate responses to violence, such as pre-hospital care, emergency services or treatment for sexually transmitted infections following a rape.

Tertiary prevention — approaches that focus on long-term care in the wake of violence, such as rehabilitation and reintegration, and attempt to lessen trauma or reduce long-term disability associated with violence. A public health approach emphasizes the primary prevention of violence, i. Until recently, this approach has been relatively neglected in the field, with the majority of resources directed towards secondary or tertiary prevention.

Perhaps the most critical element of a public health approach to prevention is the ability to identify underlying causes rather than focusing upon more visible "symptoms". This allows for the development and testing of effective approaches to address the underlying causes and so improve health. The public health approach is an evidence-based and systematic process involving the following four steps: Defining the problem conceptually and numerically, using statistics that accurately describe the nature and scale of violence, the characteristics of those most affected, the geographical distribution of incidents, and the consequences of exposure to such violence.

Investigating why the problem occurs by determining its causes and correlates, the factors that increase or decrease the risk of its occurrence risk and protective factors and the factors that might be modifiable through intervention. Exploring ways to prevent the problem by using the above information and designing, monitoring and rigorously assessing the effectiveness of programmes through outcome evaluations.

Disseminating information on the effectiveness of programmes and increasing the scale of proven effective programmes. Approaches to prevent violence, whether targeted at individuals or entire communities, must be properly evaluated for their effectiveness and the results shared. This step also includes adapting programmes to local contexts and subjecting them to rigorous re-evaluation to ensure their effectiveness in the new setting. In many countries, violence prevention is still a new or emerging field in public health.

The public health community has started only recently to realize the contributions it can make to reducing violence and mitigating its consequences. In , Gordon called for injury prevention efforts to be based on the understanding of causes, in a similar way to prevention efforts for communicable and other diseases.

He defined violence as an issue that public health experts needed to address and stated that it should not be the primary domain of lawyers, military personnel, or politicians. The global public health response to interpersonal violence began in earnest in the mids.

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Meeting of victims of sexual violence in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. It includes rape, defined as the physically forced or otherwise coerced penetration of the vulva or anus with a penis, other body part or object. If perpetrated during childhood, sexual violence can lead to increased smoking, [33] drug and alcohol misuse, and risky sexual behaviors in later life. It is also associated with perpetration of violence and being a victim of violence.

Many of the risk factors for sexual violence are the same as for domestic violence. Risk factors specific to sexual violence perpetration include beliefs in family honor and sexual purity, ideologies of male sexual entitlement and weak legal sanctions for sexual violence. Few interventions to prevent sexual violence have been demonstrated to be effective. School-based programmes to prevent child sexual abuse by teaching children to recognize and avoid potentially sexually abusive situations are run in many parts of the world and appear promising, but require further research.

To achieve lasting change, it is important to enact legislation and develop policies that protect women; address discrimination against women and promote gender equality; and help to move the culture away from violence.

Elder abuse Elder maltreatment is a single or repeated act, or lack of appropriate action, occurring within any relationship where there is an expectation of trust which causes harm or distress to an older person. This type of violence constitutes a violation of human rights and includes physical , sexual , psychological , emotional; financial and material abuse; abandonment; neglect ; and serious loss of dignity and respect. Data on the extent of the problem in institutions such as hospitals, nursing homes and other long-term care facilities are scarce.

Elder maltreatment can lead to serious physical injuries and long-term psychological consequences. Elder maltreatment is predicted to increase as many countries are experiencing rapidly ageing populations. Many strategies have been implemented to prevent elder maltreatment and to take action against it and mitigate its consequences including public and professional awareness campaigns, screening of potential victims and abusers , caregiver support interventions e.

Their effectiveness has, however, not so far been well-established. These studies — investigated what the authors called "targeted violence," described the "path to violence" of those who planned or carried out attacks and laid out suggestions for law enforcement and educators. A major point from these research studies is that targeted violence does not just "come out of the blue". Its causes are complex and occur at different levels. To represent this complexity, the ecological, or social ecological model is often used.

The following four-level version of the ecological model is often used in the study of violence: The first level identifies biological and personal factors that influence how individuals behave and increase their likelihood of becoming a victim or perpetrator of violence: For intimate partner violence, a consistent marker at this level of the model is marital conflict or discord in the relationship. In elder abuse , important factors are stress due to the nature of the past relationship between the abused person and the care giver.

The third level explores the community context—i. Risk at this level may be affected by factors such as the existence of a local drug trade, the absence of social networks, and concentrated poverty. All these factors have been shown to be important in several types of violence.

Finally, the fourth level looks at the broad societal factors that help to create a climate in which violence is encouraged or inhibited: Child-rearing[ edit ] Cross-cultural studies have shown that greater prevalence of corporal punishment of children tends to predict higher levels of violence in societies.

For instance, a analysis of pre-industrial societies found that corporal punishment was more prevalent in societies which also had higher rates of homicide, assault, and war. Straus believes that disciplinary spanking forms "the most prevalent and important form of violence in American families", whose effects contribute to several major societal problems, including later domestic violence and crime.

Neurobiologist Jan Volavka emphasizes that, for those purposes, "violent behavior is defined as intentional physically aggressive behavior against another person. Among prehistoric humans, there is archaeological evidence for both contentions of violence and peacefulness as primary characteristics. For example, in a state where execution is a legalized punishment we do not typically perceive the executioner as "violent", though we may talk, in a more metaphorical way, of the state acting violently.

Likewise, understandings of violence are linked to a perceived aggressor-victim relationship: Apes and the Origins of Human Violence" write that violence is inherent in humans, though not inevitable. Ury, editor of a book called "Must We Fight? The conclusion is that "we also have lots of natural mechanisms for cooperation, to keep conflict in check, to channel aggression, and to overcome conflict. These are just as natural to us as the aggressive tendencies.

They suggest that research typically focuses on lethal violence, often looks at homicide rates of death due to warfare , but ignore the less obvious forms of violence. Kaplan introduces the notion of liberating violence. According to Kaplan, we will observe more violent civil wars in the future, which will be fought due to economic inequalities around the world. It has been discussed at length by researchers in sociology , [64] [65] medical anthropology , [66] [67] psychology , [68] philosophy , [69] and bioarchaeology.

He writes that "Buss and Shackelford a proposed seven adaptive problems our ancestors recurrently faced that might have been solved by aggression: He argues that such conflicts occur when there is a status dispute between men of relatively similar status. If there is a great initial status difference, then the lower status individual usually offers no challenge and if challenged the higher status individual usually ignores the lower status individual.

At the same an environment of great inequalities between people may cause those at the bottom to use more violence in attempts to gain status. Media violence research Research into the media and violence examines whether links between consuming media violence and subsequent aggressive and violent behaviour exists.

Although some scholars had claimed media violence may increase aggression, [76] this view is coming increasingly in doubt both in the scholarly community [77] and was rejected by the US Supreme Court in the Brown v EMA case, as well as in a review of video game violence by the Australian Government which concluded evidence for harmful effects were inconclusive at best and the rhetoric of some scholars was not matched by good data.

Prevention[ edit ] The threat and enforcement of physical punishment has been a tried and tested method of preventing some violence since civilisation began. Interpersonal violence[ edit ] A review of scientific literature by the World Health Organization on the effectiveness of strategies to prevent interpersonal violence identified the seven strategies below as being supported by either strong or emerging evidence for effectiveness.

Child—caregiver relationships[ edit ] Among the most effective such programmes to prevent child maltreatment and reduce childhood aggression are the Nurse Family Partnership home-visiting programme [80] and the Triple P Parenting Program. Life skills refer to social, emotional, and behavioural competencies which help children and adolescents effectively deal with the challenges of everyday life.

Gender equality[ edit ] Evaluation studies are beginning to support community interventions that aim to prevent violence against women by promoting gender equality. For instance, evidence suggests that programmes that combine microfinance with gender equity training can reduce intimate partner violence. Cultural norms[ edit ] Rules or expectations of behaviour — norms — within a cultural or social group can encourage violence. Interventions that challenge cultural and social norms supportive of violence can prevent acts of violence and have been widely used, but the evidence base for their effectiveness is currently weak.

The effectiveness of interventions addressing dating violence and sexual abuse among teenagers and young adults by challenging social and cultural norms related to gender is supported by some evidence. Examples for which evidence of effectiveness is emerging includes: Collective violence[ edit ] Not surprisingly, scientific evidence about the effectiveness of interventions to prevent collective violence is lacking.

When planning responses to violent conflicts, recommended approaches include assessing at an early stage who is most vulnerable and what their needs are, co-ordination of activities between various players and working towards global, national and local capabilities so as to deliver effective health services during the various stages of an emergency.

Law enforcement is the main means of regulating nonmilitary violence in society. Governments regulate the use of violence through legal systems governing individuals and political authorities, including the police and military. Civil societies authorize some amount of violence, exercised through the police power , to maintain the status quo and enforce laws.

However, German political theorist Hannah Arendt noted: Its justification loses in plausibility the farther its intended end recedes into the future. No one questions the use of violence in self-defence, because the danger is not only clear but also present, and the end justifying the means is immediate".

Most political theorists regarded violence as an extreme manifestation of power whereas Arendt regarded the two concepts as opposites. Damage to property is classified as violent crime in some jurisdictions but not in all. The notions of individual blame, responsibility, guilt, and culpability are central to criminal justice's approach to violence and one of the criminal justice system's main tasks is to "do justice", i. To prevent and respond to violence, the criminal justice approach relies primarily on deterrence, incarceration and the punishment and rehabilitation of perpetrators.

One of the main reasons offenders are arrested, prosecuted, and convicted is to prevent further crimes — through deterrence threatening potential offenders with criminal sanctions if they commit crimes , incapacitation physically preventing offenders from committing further crimes by locking them up and through rehabilitation using time spent under state supervision to develop skills or change one's psychological make-up to reduce the likelihood of future offences.

For instance, much of community and problem-oriented policing aims to reduce crime and violence by altering the conditions that foster it — and not to increase the number of arrests. Indeed, some police leaders have gone so far as to say the police should primarily be a crime prevention agency. In the US, the criminal justice system has, for instance, funded school- and community-based initiatives to reduce children's access to guns and teach conflict resolution.

In , the US Department of Justice assumed primary responsibility for delinquency prevention programmes and created the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, which has supported the "Blueprints for violence prevention" programme at the University of Colorado Boulder.

The public health approach is interdisciplinary, drawing upon knowledge from many disciplines including medicine, epidemiology, sociology, psychology, criminology, education and economics. Because all forms of violence are multi-faceted problems, the public health approach emphasizes a multi-sectoral response. It has been proved time and again that cooperative efforts from such diverse sectors as health, education, social welfare, and criminal justice are often necessary to solve what are usually assumed to be purely "criminal" or "medical" problems.

From a public health perspective, prevention strategies can be classified into three types: Primary prevention — approaches that aim to prevent violence before it occurs. Secondary prevention — approaches that focus on the more immediate responses to violence, such as pre-hospital care, emergency services or treatment for sexually transmitted infections following a rape. Tertiary prevention — approaches that focus on long-term care in the wake of violence, such as rehabilitation and reintegration, and attempt to lessen trauma or reduce long-term disability associated with violence.

A public health approach emphasizes the primary prevention of violence, i. Until recently, this approach has been relatively neglected in the field, with the majority of resources directed towards secondary or tertiary prevention. Perhaps the most critical element of a public health approach to prevention is the ability to identify underlying causes rather than focusing upon more visible "symptoms".

This allows for the development and testing of effective approaches to address the underlying causes and so improve health. The public health approach is an evidence-based and systematic process involving the following four steps: Defining the problem conceptually and numerically, using statistics that accurately describe the nature and scale of violence, the characteristics of those most affected, the geographical distribution of incidents, and the consequences of exposure to such violence.

Investigating why the problem occurs by determining its causes and correlates, the factors that increase or decrease the risk of its occurrence risk and protective factors and the factors that might be modifiable through intervention.

Exploring ways to prevent the problem by using the above information and designing, monitoring and rigorously assessing the effectiveness of programmes through outcome evaluations. Disseminating information on the effectiveness of programmes and increasing the scale of proven effective programmes.

Approaches to prevent violence, whether targeted at individuals or entire communities, must be properly evaluated for their effectiveness and the results shared. This step also includes adapting programmes to local contexts and subjecting them to rigorous re-evaluation to ensure their effectiveness in the new setting.

In many countries, violence prevention is still a new or emerging field in public health. The public health community has started only recently to realize the contributions it can make to reducing violence and mitigating its consequences. In , Gordon called for injury prevention efforts to be based on the understanding of causes, in a similar way to prevention efforts for communicable and other diseases. He defined violence as an issue that public health experts needed to address and stated that it should not be the primary domain of lawyers, military personnel, or politicians.

The global public health response to interpersonal violence began in earnest in the mids.

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4 Comments

  1. Few interventions to prevent sexual violence have been demonstrated to be effective. Secondary prevention — approaches that focus on the more immediate responses to violence, such as pre-hospital care, emergency services or treatment for sexually transmitted infections following a rape. When planning responses to violent conflicts, recommended approaches include assessing at an early stage who is most vulnerable and what their needs are, co-ordination of activities between various players and working towards global, national and local capabilities so as to deliver effective health services during the various stages of an emergency.

  2. From a public health perspective, prevention strategies can be classified into three types: Its justification loses in plausibility the farther its intended end recedes into the future. Tertiary prevention — approaches that focus on long-term care in the wake of violence, such as rehabilitation and reintegration, and attempt to lessen trauma or reduce long-term disability associated with violence.

  3. One of the main reasons offenders are arrested, prosecuted, and convicted is to prevent further crimes — through deterrence threatening potential offenders with criminal sanctions if they commit crimes , incapacitation physically preventing offenders from committing further crimes by locking them up and through rehabilitation using time spent under state supervision to develop skills or change one's psychological make-up to reduce the likelihood of future offences.

  4. Its causes are complex and occur at different levels. Law enforcement is the main means of regulating nonmilitary violence in society. For instance, evidence suggests that programmes that combine microfinance with gender equity training can reduce intimate partner violence.

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