Doorless entry[ edit ] Modern public toilets may be designed with a labyrinth entrance doorless entry , which prevents the spread of disease that might otherwise occur when coming in contact with a door. Doorless entry provides visual privacy while simultaneously offering a measure of security by allowing the passage of sound.
Doorless entry also helps deter vandalism; fewer audible clues to another person entering discourages some vandals. Doorless entry may also be achieved simply by keeping an existing door propped open, closed only when necessary. Coin operated entry[ edit ] Pay toilets usually have some form of coin operated turnstile, or they have an attendant who collects the fee.
Service access[ edit ] Modern public toilets often have a service entrance, utilities passage , and the like, that run behind all the fixtures. Sensors are installed in a separate room, behind the fixtures.
Usually the separate room is just a narrow corridor or passageway. Sensors[ edit ] Sensor-operated fixtures faucets, soap dispensers, hand dryers, paper towel dispensers prevent the spread of disease by allowing patrons to circumvent the need to touch common surfaces. Sensor-operated toilets also help conserve water by limiting the amount used per flush, and require less routine maintenance.
Each sensor views through a small window into each fixture. Sometimes the metal plates that house the sensor windows are bolted on from behind, to prevent tampering. Additionally, all of the electrical equipment is safely behind the walls, so that there is no danger of electric shock.
However, a RCCB must be used for all such electrical equipment. Lighting[ edit ] Service lighting consisting of windows that run all the way around the outside of the toilet using electric lights behind the windows, to create the illusion of extensive natural light, even when the toilets are underground or otherwise do not have access to natural light.
The windows are sometimes made of glass brick , permanently cemented in place. Lighting installed in service tunnels that run around the outside of the toilets provides optimum safety from electrical shock keeping the lights outside the toilet , hygiene no cracks or openings , security no way for vandals to access the light bulbs , and aesthetics clean architectural lines that maintain a continuity of whatever aesthetic design is present, e. Cisterns tanks [ edit ] Older toilets infrequently have service ducts and often in old toilets that have been modernized, the toilet cistern is hidden in a tiled over purpose-built 'box'.
Often old toilets still have high-level cisterns in the service ducts. On the outside, the toilet is flushed by a handle just like an ordinary low-level cistern toilet although behind the wall this handle activates a chain. Sometimes a long flushing trough is used to allow closets to be flushed repeatedly without waiting for the cistern to refill. This trend of hiding cisterns and fittings behind the walls started in the late s in the United States and in the United Kingdom from the s, and by the late s it was unusual for toilet cisterns to be visible in public toilets.
In some buildings such as schools, however, a cistern can still be visible, although high-level cisterns had become outdated by the s. Many schools now have low-level cisterns. Fixtures[ edit ] Public toilets by their nature see heavy usage, so they may rely on a flushometer with a stronger and louder flush than a home toilet. Some high-vandalism settings, such as beaches or stadiums, will use metal toilets. Public toilets generally contain several of the following fixtures.
Pay toilet A Sanisette , a freestanding, coin-operated pay toilet stall in Paris. Toilets that require the user to pay may be street furniture or be inside a building, e. The reason for charging money is usually for the maintenance of the equipment. Paying to use a toilet can be traced back almost years, to the first century AD.
The payment may be taken by a bathroom attendant , or by a coin-operated turnstile or cubicle door see John Nevil Maskelyne , who invented a doorlock requiring the insertion of a penny coin, hence the euphemism to "spend a penny".
Privatization of public toilets Welsh Dragon Bar, Wellington, New Zealand; formerly a public toilet In some places, the provision of public toilet facilities is under great pressure. Another response is to privatise the toilets, so that a public good is provided by a contractor,  just as private prisons are. The toilets may fall under the category of privately owned public space - anyone can use them, but the land ultimately belongs to the corporation in question.
When toilets that have been privatised are improperly run, or closed, there may be calls to take them back into the control of the public authority , as with Westminster Council in central London - one of the wealthiest places in the world, where members of the public are reduced to urinating in the parks and streets for lack of available facilities. Customers rank complimentary toilets highly, and their availability influences shopping behaviour.
By offering appropriate customer toilets, retail stores and shopping centres may enhance their profits and image; however, many retailers pay insufficient attention to their customer toilet facilities. Due to the potential of customer toilets to increase profits and improve store image, retailers could benefit from regarding toilets as a marketing investment rather than a property expense.