Chinese marriage Traditional marriage in prerevolutionary China was a contract between families rather than between two individuals. During the time of the Han Dynasty a marriage lacking a dowry or betrothal gift was seen as dishonorable.
Only after gifts were exchanged did the real steps continue on, brides were taken to live in the ancestral homes of their husbands. Here, they were not only expected to live with the entirety of her husband's family, but to follow all of their rules and beliefs as well. Many families during this time followed the Confusion teachings regarding honoring their elders, these rituals were passed down from father to son and so forth, official family lists were made up that contained names of all the sons and marital wives.
Thus, brides who did not produce a son were written out of family lists and forgotten. Further, when a husband dies the bride is seen as property of her spouse's family. Ransoms were set by some bride families to get their daughters back, though never with her children who remained in the property of her husband's family. The law "was intended to cause Family planning is practiced".
The bride price custom has transformed into providing gifts for the bride or her family. Article 8 of the Marriage Law states, "after a marriage has been registered, the woman may become a member of the man's family, or the man may become a member of the woman's family, according to the agreed wishes of the two parties.
In , there were almost 40, women registered in Chinese-foreign marriages in mainland China. In comparison, there were less than 12, men registered in these types of marriages in the same year.
The New Marriage Law of allowed women in China to be able to divorce for the first time in China, which allowed women to leave husbands who had these extramarital affairs. Today, women who discover their husband has a "second wife" are less tolerant and now have the ability to ask for a divorce. Sudden industrialization in China brought two types of people together: Some rich businessmen start relationships with these women, known as "keeping a second wife" bao yinai in Cantonese.
If a relationship does become something more, some of the Chinese women quit their job and become 'live-in lovers' whose main job is to please the working man. Most women don't have much say because they are usually far away from their husbands. Even if the wives do move to China with their husbands, the businessman still find ways to carry on affairs.
Some wives go into the situation with the motto "one eye open, with the other eye closed" meaning they understand their husbands are bound to cheat, but want to make sure they practice safe sex and do not bring home children.
Many first wives, in order to suppress the children's questions, downplay the fathers role and make it seem less important. Other women fear for their financial situations. In order to protect their life's work, some women try to protect their rights but putting the house and other major finances in their names instead of their husbands. Unlike previous generations of arranged marriages , the modern polygamy is more often voluntary. There is a derogatory term for women who are not married by the time they are in their late twenties, sheng nu.
With these pressures to be married, some women who have very few prospects willingly enter into a second marriage. Sometimes, these second wives are promised a good life and home by these men. Oftentimes, these women are poor and uneducated so when they split, they have very little left. Sometimes these women were completely unaware that the man was already married.
See documentary attached, "China's Second Wives". Policies on divorce[ edit ] The Marriage Law of empowered women to initiate divorce proceedings. These requests were mediated by party-affiliated organizations, rather than discredited legal systems. Minan, a trial attorney in the Civil Division of the U. Department of Justice and a law professor at the University of San Diego, argue that the Marriage Law of allowed for much flexibility in the refusal of divorce when only one party sought it.
During the market-based economic reforms, China re-instituted a formal legal system and implemented provisions for divorce on a more individualized basis. Domestic violence in China In , the All-China Women's Federation compiled survey results to show that thirty percent of the women in China experienced domestic violence within their homes.
The Chinese Marriage Law was amended in to offer mediation services and compensation to those who subjected to domestic violence. Domestic violence was finally criminalized with the amendment of the Law of Protection of Rights and Interests of Women.
History of education in China and Education in the People's Republic of China The gender gap in current enrollment widens with age because males are more likely to be enrolled than females at every age group in the People's Republic of China. Female primary school enrollment suffered more than that of males during the Great Chinese Famine — Although the percentage of illiterate women decreased significantly from 88 percent to 15 percent, it is significantly higher than the percentage of illiterate men for the same age groupings.
Women's health in China In traditional Chinese culture, which was a patriarchal society based on Confucian ideology , women did not possess priority in healthcare. Health care was tailored to focus on men. During the Cultural Revolution — , the People's Republic of China began to focus on the provision of health care for women. Health care policy required all women workers to receive urinalysis and vaginal examinations yearly. This law and numerous others focus on protecting the rights of all women in the People's Republic of China.
The phenomenon of the missing women of Asia is visible in China. The ratio of men to women in China is much higher than would be expected biologically, and gender discrimination has contributed to this imbalance. Sen attributed the deficit in the number of women to sex-selective abortion, female infanticide , and inadequate nutrition for girls, all of which have been encouraged by the One-child policy.
However, information on cervical cancer screening is not quite available for women in China.