December Eleven years after the launch of the first HPV vaccine, it's time to take stock. As the number of protected women rises slowly but surely, men become the new risk group. Experts are calling for comprehensive vaccination of both sexes.
Around 80 percent of all people become infected during their lifetime with human papilloma viruses HPV. Depending on the genotype, HPV triggers the growth of benign or malignant tumours.
These types include 16, 18, 31 and Doctors have long focused on women and simply disregarded men. Leaving the lads unvaccinated: In reality, vaccination rates remain below 40 percent. A further limitation to herd protection comes in the form of men who have sex with men MSM. The male sexual organ seems to play a particular role, although there is still need for research here.
If men suffer from a foreskin constriction phimosis , they are more likely to get penile carcinoma. This cancer is also associated with HPV.
Blow-job with consequences This is not just about lesions on the penis. She has evaluated data on 13, individuals between 20 and 69 years of age.
Available data was derived from 9, subjects aged 20 to 59 on their sexual practices. Data from cancer registries were added to this. Women who had oral sex with a maximum of one male had the lowest prevalence. The level increased to a maximum of 3. The study showed significantly higher levels in men MSM. For those who had never had oral sex with any other man or only with one at most, prevalence was 1.
For those with a maximum of four oral sex partners this figure was 4. For those who had traded blow-jobs with five or more men the figure came to 7. High-risk viruses more common in men Kalyani Sonawane from the University of Florida, Gainesville, arrived at similar results. With regard to oral HPV infections Sonawane provided data showing a prevalence of High-risk genotypes were more common in men than in women 7.
For men and women who had same-sex sexual partners, the prevalence of high-risk HPV viruses was If men had had oral sex with several other men, prevalence was even as high as The likelihood of oral HPV infection from high-risk viruses was most prevalent among black participants, among those who smoked more than 20 cigarettes a day, consumed marijuana or had a large number of different sexual partners.
What does this knowledge bring? Doctors are currently able to do very little with these studies on risk. For risk patients, no conclusions can possibly be made about future cancers, she says.
Alternatively, HPV vaccines are an option, provided they cover the widest possible range of infections. Since , vaccines have been available for preventive use. The dual vaccine contains type 16 and 18 antigens.
With the triple vaccine the antigens contained are for HPV 6, 11, 16, and the nine-fold vaccine includes 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52 and Condoms protect regardless of sexual practice, this being a matter beyond question. Those who abstain from oral sex also minimise their risk. This is especially true for MSMs and for women who gratify men orally. Thus far, little attention has been paid to how men are affected if they gratify women orally.
Moreover, one aspect must not be forgotten: In almost all cases, the immune system succeeds in repelling infections. Only persistent oncogenic viruses increase the risk of cancer. And this is exactly where vaccinations take effect, before the first infection. Vaccination for everyone The reasoning here cannot be challenged. Between and she recruited exactly women from 20 to 25 years of age.
All participants had to provide information about themselves as well as providing a cervical smear. Of these, were not vaccinated against HPV. In the unprotected population, HPV prevalence was The prevalence of having at least one high-risk type was The likely effects of vaccination on HPV prevalence have been observed for women who have been vaccinated at a younger age, she says. Doctors should respond now Men benefit as well. Several studies among others Giuliano et al. An exact timetabled plan is not yet at hand.